Sports Injuries




Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Facilitates Surgery on Complex Open Elbow Injuries: Preliminary Results.

2007. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007 Jul-Aug;16(4):454-60. Epub 2007 May 15

Huang KC, Tsai YH, Hsu RW.

Introduction: Complex open elbow injuries present a significant challenge to orthopaedic surgeons because of the poor potential for achieving a good functional level, even given good anatomic realignment. Associated massive soft-tissue damage impedes surgical fixation, delays rehabilitation, and therefore, further deteriorates the functional outcome. We studied a prospective, consecutive series of 16 patients with complex open elbow injuries who were treated with a combination of treatment modalities including early bony stabilization, debridement of soft tissue, and early coverage. The treatment protocol also used hyperbaric oxygen therapy to facilitate immediate internal fixation.

Findings: The median value of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score was 5.5 (range, 3-10). Successful reconstruction was achieved in all 16 patients. No deep infection occurred, but there were 3 self-limited superficial infections. The average elbow functional result at 12 months after surgery, based on the Mayo score system, was good (mean value, 80.9; range, 55-100). Of the patients, 75% achieved satisfactory functional results for the elbow.

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the studied treatment protocol provides a promising alternative for managing these complex open elbow injuries.

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen and Platelet Derived Growth Factor on Medial Collateral Ligament Fibroblasts

2007.  Undersea Hyperb Med. 2007 May-Jun; 34(3):181-90

Chan YS, Chen AC, Yuan LJ, Lin SS, Yang CY, Lee MS, Ueng SW.

PURPOSE: This study investigated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to determine their combined effects on fibroblasts from rabbit medial collateral ligament (MCL).

METHOD: Cells were divided into four groups: (I) Control, (II) HBO2 treatment, (III) PDGF-BB treatment and (IV) HBO2 combined with PDGF-BB treatment. All hyperoxic cells were exposed to 100% O2 at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in a hyperbaric chamber for 120 minutes per 48 hours. Measurement of cell growth was based on increase in cell number. Cell cycle modulations were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Quantity of Type I and Type III collagen was determined by western blotting and image analyzer.

RESULTS: Treatment doses of HBO2 alone or PDGF-bb alone dependently increased cell growth. A combination of HBO2 treatment plus PDGF-bb treatment had an additive effect on cell growth in comparison with HBO2 treatment alone or PDGF-bb treatment alone. FACS analysis revealed that HBO2 alone, PDGF-bb alone and PDGF-bb plus HBO2 treatment increase the percentage of cells accumulated in S-phase. Western blotting analysis revealed that Type III collagen content was decreased significantly after HBO2 treatment alone or HBO2 plus PDGF-bb treatment but not in PDGF-bb treatment alone. In contrast, although Type I collagen content was increased after HBO2 treatment, the increase in Type I collagen (increase /original) was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: HBO2 or HBO2 plus PDGF-bb treatment decreases the Type III collagen/Type I collagen content, which could result in mechanically stronger collagen fibrils. We propose HBO2 therapy as a potentially effective treatment for MCL healing.

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblasts from Human Alveolar Bone

2007.  Connect Tissue Res. 2007;48(4):206-13

Wu D, Malda J, Crawford R, Xiao Y.

In view of the controversy of the clinical use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment to stimulate fracture healing and bone regeneration, we have analyzed the effects of daily exposure to HBO on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts in vitro. HBO stimulated proliferation when osteoblasts were cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), whereas an inhibitory effect of HBO was observed when cultures were supplemented with 2% FCS. On the other hand, HBO enhanced biomineralization with an increase in bone nodule formation, calcium deposition, and alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas no cytotoxic effect was detected using a lactate dehydrogenase activity assay. The data suggest that the exposure of osteoblasts to HBO enhances differentiation toward the osteogenic phenotype, providing cellular evidence of the potential application of HBO in fracture healing and bone regeneration.

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Tendon Graft and Tendon-Bone Integration in Bone Tunnel: Biochemical and Histological Analysis in Rabbits

2007.  J Orthop Res. 2007 May;25(5):636-45

Yeh WL, Lin SS, Yuan LJ, Lee KF, Lee MY, Ueng SW

Introduction: Despite moderate success in clinical applications, outcome of tendon grafts employed for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains unsatisfactory. This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction, collagen fibers of the tendon graft, and the tendon graft-bony interface incorporated into the osseous tunnel in rabbits.

Methods: Forty rabbits were assigned to two groups. The HBO group was exposed to 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres pressure for 2 h daily, 5 consecutive days in a week. The control group was maintained in cages exposed to normal air. Histological studies of 12 rabbits were performed postoperatively at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Biomechanical studies of 24 rabbits were conducted postoperatively at 12 and 18 weeks. Electron microscopy (EM) analyses of four rabbits were performed postoperatively at 18 weeks.

Results: Experimental results demonstrated that a higher number of Sharpey’s fibers bridged the newly formed fibrocartilage and graft in the HBO group than in the control group. In addition, HBO treatment increased neovascularization and enhanced the incorporation of the progressive interface between tendon graft and bone. Biomechanical analysis showed that the HBO group achieved higher maximal pullout strength than the control group. Examination by EM showed that HBO treatment resulted in regenerated collagen fibers with increased compaction and regularity.

Conclusions: Based on experimental results, HBO treatment is a treatment modality that potentially improves outcome following ACL reconstruction.

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Gene Expressions of Procollagen, Matrix Metalloproteinase and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase in Injured Medial Collateral Ligament and Anterior Cruciate Ligament

2007.  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007 Apr;15(4):443-52.

Takeyama N, Sakai H, Ohtake H, Mashitori H, Tamai K, Saotome K.

Introduction: Animal experiments were performed to investigate whether and how the administration of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) affects gene expressions of procollagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in injured medial collateral ligament (MCL) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

Methods: In 64 Sprague-Dawley rats, the MCL of the left knee was lacerated at the midsubstance, and the ACL of the left knee was lacerated adjacent to the tibial insertion in another 64 rats. Of these, 32 rats with lacerated MCL and 32 rats with lacerated ACL were housed in individual cages at normal atmospheric pressure (Groups MC and AC, respectively), while the remaining 64 rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 2 h for 5 days a week (Groups MH and AH, respectively). Rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days postoperatively. After macroscopic examination, bilateral MCLs were harvested from Groups MC and MH, and bilateral ACLs from Groups AC and AH. Total RNA was extracted from each specimen and gene expressions of type I and type III procollagens, MMP-2, -9 and -3, and TIMP-1 and -2 were estimated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Macroscopically, lacerated MCL healed by scar tissue formation, the amount of which appeared to be greater in Group MH than in Group MC. In contrast, no lacerated ACLs united, and little, if any, differences were apparent in macroscopic findings between Groups AH and AC.

Findings: Gene expression of type I procollagen was significantly greater in Group MH than in Group MC at 7 days postoperatively and was also significantly greater in Group AH than in Group AC at 28 days (P<0.05). No significant differences in type III procollagen gene expression were noted between Groups MH and MC or between Groups AH and AC. In addition, no significant differences in gene expressions of MMPs were seen in either ligament, except that gene expression of MMP-13 was significantly lower at 7 days in Group MH than in Group MC (P<0.05). Gene expressions of TIMPs did not differ significantly between Groups MH and MC in each time interval, whereas gene expressions of TIMPs were significantly greater in Group AH than in Group AC at 7, 14 and 28 days for TIMP-1 and at 3, 7 and 14 days for TIMP-2 (P<0.05).

Conclusions: RT-PCR results suggested that HBO enhances structural protein synthesis and inhibits degradative processes by enhancing TIMP activities in the lacerated ACL. However, none of the lacerated ACLs united macroscopically despite administration of HBO, indicating that the effect of HBO is insufficient for healing of the injured ACL. If HBO therapy is used as an adjunctive therapy after primary repair of the injured ACL, the success rate of surgery seems likely to be increased.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Induces Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Expression, and Enhances Blood Perfusion and Muscle Regeneration in Mouse Ischemic Hind Limbs

Circ J. 2007 Mar;71(3):405-11

BACKGROUND: It is not clear how hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) affects ischemia-induced pathophysiological responses such as angiogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. In the present study the effects of HBO on the functional and morphological recovery of ischemic hind limbs, blood perfusion and the local production of angiogenic growth factors were studied in a mouse model.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were placed in pure oxygen under 3 atm for 1 h/day for 14 days after the removal of a segment of the left femoral artery. HBO-treated mice showed better functional recovery and greater blood flow in the ischemic hind limb than untreated mice. Histological examination revealed unatrophied muscle fibers with islands of small regenerating muscle cells only in HBO-treated mice. Regeneration of muscle was confirmed by the increase in myf5 mRNA. The amount of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was slightly increased in the ischemic hind limbs. HBO eliminated the increase in VEGF mRNA. In contrast, the amount of mRNA for bFGF and HGF was further increased by HBO treatment. HBO transiently increased early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) in the ischemic hind limbs.

CONCLUSIONS: HBO accelerates the recovery of ischemic hind limbs by increasing the production of bFGF and HGF and by promoting muscle regeneration in mice.